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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

September 11th, 2020, 4:08 pm

Moving beyond the original question and beyond scope, using divided differences to compute greeks is OK for pedagogy 
Also OK for trading, in practice. Traders don't care about derivatives, the market doesn't move in epsilon increments (see Taleb).
"That would be an Ecumenical matter".
 
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katastrofa
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Re: Python tricks

September 11th, 2020, 9:29 pm

What about irrational traders, ISayMoo? :-)

(Still, I don't think it's correct to use derivatives of continuous functions - namely gaussians - to deal with (S-K[...])^+ when calculating greeks and "speed", @re Cuchulainn's posts in Offtopic forum. It changes the maths of the problem, so to speak.)

BTW, since nobody answered my question (the speed of what?), I'm going to call it "the speed of Collector" :-P
 
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ISayMoo
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Re: Python tricks

September 12th, 2020, 3:19 pm

Speed of Night, of course.

"I don't want to let another trade get by
The gamma's slipping through our fingers but we're not gonna sell
The hedge'll be our cover and we'll huddle on the floor
We got Bloomberg on our screens to track PnL"
 
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katastrofa
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Re: Python tricks

September 12th, 2020, 3:55 pm

Thanks, I think I get it: Iron Maiden - Speed of Light
"Shadows in the greeks,
We will not return
Gamma will not save us
At the speed of light"

Theme of the day: Hyphens in Python file names
Image
 
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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

September 16th, 2020, 7:36 pm

Hi, 

Sorry if I'm on the wrong board here - new to the forum. 

I'm trying to get to grips with Cython - just doing a basic explicit finite difference function and trying to test the performance gains of various implementations. I know my code is working, and it's an order of magnitude quicker than pure python/numpy, but the numba jit compilation is another 10x faster than my Cython code - is anyone familiar with C/Cython and able to spot the bottleneck in the following please? It's definitely something to do with my V[:,:] array but I don't know how to optimise this further. 

Can obviously just use the numba version for speed but feel like I should be able to at least get to the same with Cython... so wondering what I've missed.

Thanks!!

Numpy/Numba versions (~1.5ms and 5 microseconds, respectively):
import numpy as np
import numba as nb
def FDEur_py(option_type, vol, r, K, T, n_ds):
    ds = 2 * K / n_ds
    dt = 0.9 / vol ** 2 / n_ds ** 2
    s = np.arange(0,2*K+ds,ds)
    n_dt = round(T / dt)
    dt = T / n_dt
    V = np.empty((n_ds+1, n_dt+1))
    
    q = 1 if option_type == 'C' else -1
    
    V[:,0] = np.maximum(q * (s - K),0)
    
    for k in range(1,n_dt+1):
        for i in range(1,n_ds):
            delta = (V[i+1,k-1] - V[i-1,k-1]) / 2/ds
            gamma = (V[i+1,k-1] - 2*V[i,k-1] + V[i-1,k-1]) / ds/ds
            theta = -0.5 * vol ** 2 * s[i] ** 2 * gamma - r * s[i] * delta + r * V[i,k-1]
            V[i,k] = V[i,k-1] - dt * theta
        
        V[0,k] = V[0,k-1] * (1 - r * dt)
        V[n_ds,k] = 2 * V[n_ds-1,k] - V[n_ds-2,k]
    
    return V

FDEur_nb = nb.jit(FDEur_py)

Cython attempt (~50 microseconds):
%%cython
import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np

def FDEur(str option_type, float vol, float r, float K, float T, int n_ds):
    cdef double ds = 2 * K / n_ds
    cdef double dt = 0.9 / vol ** 2 / n_ds ** 2
    cdef int n_dt = round(T / dt)
    cdef double[:] s = np.zeros(n_ds+1)
    cdef double[:,:] V = np.zeros((n_ds+1,n_dt+1))
    cdef int q, k, i
    
    dt = T / n_dt
    q = 1 if option_type == 'C' else -1
    
    for i in range(0,n_ds+1):
        s[i] = i * ds
        V[i,0] = max(q * (s[i] - K),0)
    
    for k in range(1,n_dt+1):
        for i in range(1,n_ds):
            delta = (V[i+1,k-1] - V[i-1,k-1]) / 2/ds
            gamma = (V[i+1,k-1] - 2*V[i,k-1] + V[i-1,k-1]) / ds/ds
            theta = -0.5 * vol ** 2 * s[i] ** 2 * gamma - r * s[i] * delta + r * V[i,k-1]
            V[i,k] = V[i,k-1] - dt * theta
        
        V[0,k] = V[0,k-1] * (1 - r * dt)
        V[n_ds,k] = 2 * V[n_ds-1,k] - V[n_ds-2,k]
    
    return np.array(V)
Hi ZSG,
I sent you a PM (Private Mail), top right corner of screen.
 
ZeroSumGame
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Joined: January 23rd, 2020, 11:26 am

Re: Python tricks

September 16th, 2020, 8:05 pm


Hi ZSG,
I sent you a PM (Private Mail), top right corner of screen.

Hey - apparently I'm still too new to be able to send PMs! But unfortunately don't know if I can help, sorry - I'm just in Jupyter NB and learned what i know from chapter 10 in Yves Hilpisch's Python for Finance - then just started trying different problems. Haven't attempted proper setup of .pyx files or anything yet. 
 
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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

October 1st, 2020, 1:46 pm

What do masked arrays offer when compared to normal arrays?
 
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bearish
Posts: 6309
Joined: February 3rd, 2011, 2:19 pm

Re: Python tricks

October 1st, 2020, 2:38 pm

Covid protection?
 
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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

October 1st, 2020, 4:45 pm

Covid protection?
Inside every masked array hides a normal array trying to get out. It's a cover.
 
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katastrofa
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Re: Python tricks

October 1st, 2020, 5:29 pm

They are a convenient way of creating masks, e.g. for missing values or special values indicating missing values (in some surveys negative numbers are used to indicate that the answer wasn't obtained for various reasons).

import numpy as np
import numpy.ma as ma
zorro = np.array([2, 0, 12, 12, 0])
masked_zorro = ma.masked_less_equal(a, 0)
print('Mean Zorro: {} vs. Mean masked Zorro: {}'.format(zorro.mean(), masked_zorro.mean()))

RTFM answer: https://numpy.org/doc/stable/reference/ ... #rationale
 
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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

October 1st, 2020, 5:40 pm

They are a convenient way of creating masks, e.g. for missing values or special values indicating missing values (in some surveys negative numbers are used to indicate that the answer wasn't obtained for various reasons).

import numpy as np
import numpy.ma as ma
zorro = np.array([2, 0, 12, 12, 0])
masked_zorro = ma.masked_less_equal(a, 0)
print('Mean Zorro: {} vs. Mean masked Zorro: {}'.format(zorro.mean(), masked_zorro.mean()))

RTFM answer: https://numpy.org/doc/stable/reference/ ... #rationale
Thanks; I was looking for a second opinion, maybe an application that no one else thought of.
 
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katastrofa
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Re: Python tricks

January 4th, 2021, 10:33 am

{True: 0, 1: False}
 
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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

January 4th, 2021, 9:14 pm

{True: 0, 1: False}
Inconceivable.
 
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katastrofa
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Re: Python tricks

January 5th, 2021, 12:49 am

You keep using Pythin's bool... I don't think it means what you think it means.

I = [0,1,2]
l[True]
l[False]
 
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Cuchulainn
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Re: Python tricks

January 5th, 2021, 1:00 pm

You keep using Pythin's bool... I don't think it means what you think it means.

I = [0,1,2]
l[True]
l[False]
Doublethink requires using logic against logic or suspending disbelief in the contradiction.

// Python 4.9
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