They certainly are, but my point was more along the lines of deeply involved. The likelihood of mom and dad (or some college consultant) changing your profile or fixing your test scores without your knowledge is pretty remote.
Yes, the students are not innocent bystanders, One issue for me as MSc supervisor is how can I see that a thesis is fake? I do a Skype and then I know pretty quick.
A follow-on; how many scientific articles are faked? How many of my books have been translated into Romanian and penned under a 'local' name?