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TraderJoe
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 25th, 2007, 11:54 pm

QuoteClimate risk 'to million species' (makes your blood boil, don't it?) By Alex Kirby BBC News Online environment correspondent Climate change could drive a million of the world's species to extinction as soon as 2050, a scientific study says. The authors say in the journal Nature a study of six world regions suggested a quarter of animals and plants living on the land could be forced into oblivion. They say cutting greenhouse gases and storing the main one, carbon dioxide, could save many species from vanishing. The United Nations says the prospect is also a threat to the billions of people who rely on Nature for their survival. Seeking cooler climes In a report, Extinction Risk From Climate Change, the scientists describe their study of the six biodiversity-rich regions, representing 20% of the Earth's land area. At risk: South Africa's king protea (Image: Olivier Langrand/Conservation International) The study used computer models to simulate how the ranges of 1,103 species - plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs, butterflies and other invertebrates - are expected to move in response to changing temperatures and climate. The scientists considered three different possibilities - minimum, mid-range and maximum expected climate change, on the basis of data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. They also assessed whether or not animals and plants would be able to move to new areas. Mission improbable They concluded that from 15 to 37% of all the species in the regions studied could be driven to extinction by the climate changes likely between now and 2050. Species at risk include: Boyd's forest dragon, an Australian lizard likely to lost at least 20% of its range South Africa's national flower, the king protea, and its relatives Virola sebifera, a Brazilian tree whose entire range is likely to have vanished by 2050 the Scottish crossbill, found only in Scotland: its survival could demand an improbable migration to Iceland. The study's lead author, Professor Chris Thomas, of the University of Leeds, UK, says: "If the projections can be extrapolated globally, and to other groups of land animals and plants, our analyses suggest that well over a million species could be threatened with extinction." The Scottish crossbill's chances look slim (Image: Mike Richards/rspb-images.com) Some species will no longer have any climatically suitable habitat left, and others may be unable to migrate far enough to reach hospitable surroundings. The authors say: "Many of the most severe impacts of climate change are likely to stem from interactions between threats, factors not taken into account in our calculations, rather than from climate acting in isolation." They single out as examples habitat fragmentation and loss, and competition from new invasive species. But they have some encouragement as well. They say the minimum expected climate change scenarios for 2050 - the change they regard as inevitable - would mean about 18% of the affected species would vanish. Reversing the trend The medium projections suggest an extinction rate of 24%, and the highest one of 35%. Little hope for Brazil's Virola sebifera (Image copyright Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira) They conclude: "Minimising greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering [storing] carbon to realise minimum rather than mid-range or maximum expected climate warming could save a substantial percentage of terrestrial species from extinction." John Lanchbery, of the UK's Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, has studied the science and diplomacy of climate change for many years. He told BBC News Online: "It would appear there is really nothing we can do to avoid at least some extinctions. We are bound to be near to the study's minimum scenarios, even if we can avoid the higher ones." Dr Klaus Toepfer, the head of the United Nations Environment Programme, said: "If one million species become extinct... it is not just the plant and animal kingdoms and the beauty of the planet that will suffer. "Billions of people, especially in the developing world, will suffer too as they rely on Nature for such essential goods and services as food, shelter and medicines". BBC
 
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 26th, 2007, 12:13 am

New UN Report:QuotePlanet's Tougher Problems Persist, UN Report WarnsNairobi/New York, 25 October:The United Nations Environment Programme says that major threats to the planet such as climate change, the rate of extinction of species, and the challenge of feeding a growing population are among the many that remain unresolved, and all of them put humanity at risk. The warning comes in UNEP's Global Environment Outlook: environment for development (GEO-4) report published 20 years after the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission) produced its seminal report, Our Common Future. GEO-4, the latest in UNEP's series of flagship reports, assesses the current state of the global atmosphere, land, water and biodiversity, describes the changes since 1987, and identifies priorities for action. GEO-4 is the most comprehensive UN report on the environment, prepared by about 390 experts and reviewed by more than 1 000 others across the world. It salutes the world's progress in tackling some relatively straightforward problems, with the environment now much closer to mainstream politics everywhere. But despite these advances, there remain the harder-to-manage issues, the "persistent" problems. Here, GEO-4 says: "There are no major issues raised in Our Common Future for which the foreseeable trends are favourable." Failure to address these persistent problems, UNEP says, may undo all the achievements so far on the simpler issues, and may threaten humanity's survival. But it insists: "The objective is not to present a dark and gloomy scenario, but an urgent call for action." Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General and UNEP Executive Director, said: "The international community's response to the Brundtland Commission has in some cases been courageous and inspiring. But all too often it has been slow and at a pace and scale that fails to respond to or recognize the magnitude of the challenges facing the people and the environment of the planet". "Over the past 20 years, the international community has cut, by 95 per cent, the production of ozone-layer damaging chemicals; created a greenhouse gas emission reduction treaty along with innovative carbon trading and carbon offset markets; supported a rise in terrestrial protected areas to cover roughly 12 per cent of the Earth and devised numerous important instruments covering issues from biodiversity and desertification to the trade in hazardous wastes and living modified organisms," he added. "But, as GEO-4 points out, there continue to be 'persistent' and intractable problems unresolved and unaddressed. Past issues remain and new ones are emerging?from the rapid rise of oxygen 'dead zones' in the oceans to the resurgence of new and old diseases linked in part with environmental degradation. Meanwhile, institutions like UNEP, established to counter the root causes, remain under-resourced and weak," said Mr Steiner. On climate change the report says the threat is now so urgent that large cuts in greenhouse gases by mid-century are needed. Negotiations are due to start in December on a treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol, the international climate agreement which obligates countries to control anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Although it exempts all developing countries from emission reduction commitments, there is growing pressure for some rapidly-industrializing countries, now substantial emitters themselves, to agree to emission reductions. GEO-4 also warns that we are living far beyond our means. The human population is now so large that "the amount of resources needed to sustain it exceeds what is available... humanity's footprint [its environmental demand] is 21.9 hectares per person while the Earth's biological capacity is, on average, only 15.7 ha/person...". And it says the well-being of billions of people in the developing world is at risk, because of a failure to remedy the relatively simple problems which have been successfully tackled elsewhere. GEO-4 recalls the Brundtland Commission's statement that the world does not face separate crises - the "environmental crisis", "development crisis", and "energy crisis" are all one. This crisis includes not just climate change, extinction rates and hunger, but other problems driven by growing human numbers, the rising consumption of the rich and the desperation of the poor. Examples are: - decline of fish stocks; - loss of fertile land through degradation; - unsustainable pressure on resources; - dwindling amount of fresh water available for humans and other creatures to share; and - risk that environmental damage could pass unknown points of no return. GEO-4 says climate change is a "global priority", demanding political will and leadership. Yet it finds "a remarkable lack of urgency", and a "woefully inadequate" global response. Several highly-polluting countries have refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. GEO-4 says: "... some industrial sectors that were unfavourable to the... Protocol managed successfully to undermine the political will to ratify it." It says: "Fundamental changes in social and economic structures, including lifestyle changes, are crucial if rapid progress is to be achieved." Among the other critical points it identifies are: Water: Irrigation already takes about 70 per cent of available water, yet meeting the Millennium Development Goal on hunger will mean doubling food production by 2050. Fresh water is declining: by 2025, water use is predicted to have risen by 50 per cent in developing countries and by 18 per cent in the developed world. GEO-4 says: "The escalating burden of water demand will become intolerable in water-scarce countries." Water quality is declining too, polluted by microbial pathogens and excessive nutrients. Globally, contaminated water remains the greatest single cause of human disease and death. Fish: Consumption more than tripled from 1961 to 2001. Catches have stagnated or slowly declined since the 1980s. Subsidies have created excess fishing capacity, estimated at 250 per cent more than is needed to catch the oceans' sustainable production. Biodiversity: Current biodiversity changes are the fastest in human history. Species are becoming extinct a hundred times faster than the rate shown in the fossil record. The Congo Basin's bushmeat trade is thought to be six times the sustainable rate. Of the major vertebrate groups that have been assessed comprehensively, over 30 per cent of amphibians, 23 per cent of mammals and 12 per cent of birds are threatened. The intrusion of invasive alien species is a growing problem. The comb jellyfish, accidentally introduced in 1982 by US ships, has taken over the entire marine ecosystem of the Black Sea, and had destroyed 26 commercial fisheries by 1992. A sixth major extinction is under way, this time caused by human behaviour. Yet to meet our growing demand for food will mean either intensified agriculture (using more chemicals, energy and water, and more efficient breeds and crops) or cultivating more land. Either way, biodiversity suffers. One sign of progress is the steady increase in protected areas. But they must be effectively managed and properly enforced. And biodiversity (of all sorts, not just the "charismatic megafauna" like tigers and elephants) will increasingly need conserving outside protected areas as well. Regional Pressures: This is the first GEO report in which all seven of the world's regions emphasize the potential impacts of climate change. In Africa, land degradation and even desertification are threats; per capita food production has declined by 12 per cent since 1981. Unfair agricultural subsidies in developed regions continue to hinder progress towards increasing yields. Priorities for Asia and the Pacific include urban air quality, fresh water stress, degraded ecosystems, agricultural land use and increased waste. Drinking water provision has made remarkable progress in the last decade, but the illegal traffic in electronic and hazardous waste is a new challenge. Europe's rising incomes and growing numbers of households are leading to unsustainable production and consumption, higher energy use, poor urban air quality, and transport problems. The region's other priorities are biodiversity loss, land-use change and freshwater stresses. Latin America and the Caribbean face urban growth, biodiversity threats, coastal damage and marine pollution, and vulnerability to climate change. But protected areas now cover about 12 per cent of the land, and annual deforestation rates in the Amazon are falling. North America is struggling to address climate change, to which energy use, urban sprawl and freshwater stresses are all linked. Energy efficiency gains have been countered by the use of larger vehicles, low fuel economy standards, and increases in car numbers and distances travelled. For West Asia the priorities are freshwater stresses, degradation of land, coasts and marine ecosystems, urban management, and peace and security. Water-borne diseases and the sharing of international water resources are also concerns. The Polar Regions are already feeling the impacts of climate change. The food security and health of indigenous peoples are at risk from increasing mercury and persistent organic pollutants in the environment. The ozone layer is expected to take another half-century to recover. The FutureGEO-4 acknowledges that technology can help to reduce people's vulnerability to environmental stresses, but says there is sometimes a need "to correct the technology-centred development paradigm". It explores how current trends may unfold by 2050 in four scenarios. The real future will be largely determined by the decisions individuals and society make now, GEO-4 says: "Our common future depends on our actions today, not tomorrow or some time in the future." For some of the persistent problems the damage may already be irreversible. GEO-4 warns that tackling the underlying causes of environmental pressures often affects the vested interests of powerful groups able to influence policy decisions. The only way to address these harder problems requires moving the environment from the periphery to the core of decision-making: environment for development, not development to the detriment of environment. "There have been enough wake-up calls since Brundtland. I sincerely hope GEO-4 is the final one. The systematic destruction of the Earth's natural and nature-based resources has reached a point where the economic viability of economies is being challenged?and where the bill we hand on to our children may prove impossible to pay," said Mr Steiner. The GEO-4 report concludes that "while governments are expected to take the lead, other stakeholders are just as important to ensure success in achieving sustainable development. The need couldn't be more urgent and the time couldn't be more opportune, with our enhanced understanding of the challenges we face, to act now to safeguard our own survival and that of future generations" ends Notes to Editors The Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is UNEP's flagship assessment process and report series. The fourth report in the series, GEO- provides an overview of the global and regional environmental, social and economic state-and-trends over the past two decades. It highlights the interlinkages, challenges and opportunities which the environment provides for development and human well-being. The report also presents an outlook, using four scenarios to explore plausible futures to the year 2050, as well as policy options to address present and emerging environmental issues. 623944 GEO-4 is produced and published by the Division of Early Warning and Assessment of the United Nations Environment Programme. It is available from www.unep.org/geo/geo/ For more details, please contact: Global Environment Outlook (GEO) Section Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) P.O. Box 30552 Nairobi, 00100, Kenya Tel: +25 -20-7623 91 ? Fax: +25 -20-76239 Email: geo.head@unep.org Internet: www.unep.org/geo Available on-line as well as details to get copies: EarthPrint Limited, P.O. Box 119, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 TP, U.K. Fax: + 1 38 7 8 8 ? Tel: + 1 38 7 8 111 Email: unep@earthprint.com www.earthprint.com Key facts from the report Atmosphere There is now "visible and unequivocal" evidence of the impacts of climate change, and consensus that human activities have been decisive in this change: global average temperatures have risen by about 0.7 °C since 1906. A best estimate for this century's rise is expected to be between a further 1.8°C and °C. Some scientists believe a 2°C increase in the global mean temperature above pre-industrial levels is a threshold beyond which the threat of major and irreversible damage becomes more plausible. Ice cores show that the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are now far outside their ranges of natural variability over the last 500 000 years: the Earth's climate has entered a state unparalleled in recent prehistory. The average temperatures in the Arctic are rising twice as rapidly as in the rest of the world. Sea-level rise caused by thermal expansion of water and the melting of glaciers and ice sheets will continue for the foreseeable future, with potentially huge consequences: over 60 per cent of the population worldwide lives within 100 kilometres of the coast. Growing ocean acidification and warmer temperatures will probably also affect global food security. Diarrhoea and malaria will become more widespread. Present trends do not favour greenhouse gas stabilisation. Aviation saw an 80 per cent increase in miles flown between 1990 and 2003, while shipping rose from billion tonnes of goods loaded in 1990 to 7.1 billion tonnes in 2005: each sector makes huge and increasing energy demands. Some greenhouse gases may persist in the atmosphere for up to 50 000 years. Despite "impressive" success in phasing out ozone-depleting substances, the spring "hole" in the stratospheric ozone layer over the Antarctic is now larger than ever, allowing harmful ultraviolet solar radiation to reach the Earth. Acid rain is now much less of a problem in Europe and North America ("one of the success stories of recent decades"), but more challenging in countries like Mexico, India and China. Pollution More than 50 000 compounds are used commercially, hundreds more are added annually, and global chemical production is projected to increase by 85 per cent over the next 20 years. Environmental exposure causes almost a quarter of all diseases. More than two million people worldwide are estimated to die prematurely every year from indoor and outdoor air pollution. Some of the progress achieved in reducing pollution in developed countries has been at the expense of the developing world, where industrial production and its impacts are now being exported. Food Losses in total global farm production, due to insect pests, have been estimated at about 1 per cent. Since 1987 the expansion of cropland has slackened, but land use intensity has increased dramatically. Annually on average, a farmer then produced one tonne: output is now 1. tonnes. A hectare of cropland, which then yielded on average 1.8 tonnes, now produces 2.5 tonnes. Unsustainable land use is causing degradation, a threat as serious as climate change and biodiversity loss. It affects up to a third of the world's people, through pollution, soil erosion, nutrient depletion, water scarcity, salinity, and disruption of biological cycles. The food security of two-thirds of the world's people depends on fertilisers, especially nitrogen. Population growth, over-consumption and the continued shift from cereal to meat consumption mean food demand will increase to 2.5?3.5 times the present figure. By 2030 developing countries will probably need 120 million more hectares to feed themselves. The loss of genetic diversity may threaten food security: 1 animal species make up 90 per cent of all livestock, and 30 crops dominate agriculture, providing an estimated 90 per cent of the world's calories. Biodiversity About 60 per cent of the ecosystem services that have been assessed are degraded or used unsustainably; populations of freshwater vertebrates declined on average by nearly 50 per cent from 1987 to 2003, much faster than terrestrial or marine species. Over half the world's 6 000 languages are endangered, and some believe up to 90 per cent of all languages may not survive this century. Water Of the world's major rivers, 10 per cent fail to reach the sea for part of each year because of irrigation demands. In developing countries some 3 million people die annually from water-borne diseases, most of them under-five-year-olds. An estimated 2.6 billion people lack improved sanitation services. By 2025, water withdrawals are predicted to have risen by 50 per cent in developing countries and by 18 per cent in the developed world. There is rising concern about the potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems, of personal-care products and pharmaceuticals such as painkillers and antibiotics. The Unequal World The world has changed radically since 1987, economically, socially and politically. Population has increased by almost 3 per cent, trade is almost three times greater, and average income per head has gone up by about 0 per cent. Consumption has been growing faster than population, but unequally: the total annual income of nearly 1 billion people, the population of the richest countries, is almost 15 times that of the 2.3 billion people in the poorest countries. There are fewer resources to share: the amount of land per capita is about a quarter of what it was a century ago, and is expected to fall to about one-fifth of the 1900 level by 2050. Urbanization is a significant pressure: by 2025 coastal populations alone are expected to reach six billion. The year 2007 is the first in human history when more than half of all people live in cities.United Nations Environment Programme.
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farmer
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 26th, 2007, 1:52 pm

QuoteOriginally posted by: TraderJoeThey say cutting greenhouse gases and storing the main one, carbon dioxide, could save many species from vanishing. I say flattening a whole city block in the West Village and building my own palace with gardens could get a lot of girls to drop their pants for me. Anybody who has convinced himself that your priority is what matters to him has given up. It's that simple. Loser.Be honest, was it before or after you gave up on your dreams, that species extinction suddenly mattered to you, you loser? Yeah, I thought so, you loser...Why does anybody humor these geeks and failures in their little boxes? If they need something they can win, give them a video game.
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 26th, 2007, 2:50 pm

QuoteBe honest, was it before or after you gave up on your dreams, that species extinction suddenly mattered to you, you loser? Yeah, I thought so, you loser...The point being that large mass extinctions have always been won by invertebrates? (do all invertebrates dream of fossil sticks?)
 
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 26th, 2007, 6:12 pm

QuoteOriginally posted by: quartzlarge mass extinctions have always been won by invertebrates?You can't imagine how it ruined my day not to learn that a) I was in a game against jellyfish, but mainly to learn that b) that I was likely to lose that game. I am so crushed. Oh, dear, how come nobody told me before When did you become a wuss?
 
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TraderJoe
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 27th, 2007, 5:14 pm

farmer, we know you're scared.
 
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TraderJoe
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Climate Change & Extinction

October 27th, 2007, 6:00 pm

QuoteOriginally posted by: farmerQuoteOriginally posted by: TraderJoeThey say cutting greenhouse gases and storing the main one, carbon dioxide, could save many species from vanishing. I say flattening a whole city block in the West Village and building my own palace with gardens could get a lot of girls to drop their pants for me.That maybe your dream. My dream is to end world suffering .QuoteAnybody who has convinced himself that your priority is what matters to him has given up.Anybody? Anybody??? That's quite a generalisation there cowboy. Whoah boy!QuoteIt's that simple.What's that simple?QuoteLoser.There you go again - projecting all your *stuff* (anger and frustration) onto others again QuoteBe honest, was it before or after you gave up on your dreams, that species extinction suddenly mattered to you,Neither, I have always cared.Quoteyou loser?Love your enemies farmer.QuoteYeah, I thought so, you loser...There you go, jumping to conclusions again QuoteWhy does anybody humor these geeks and failures in their little boxes? If they need something they can win, give them a video game.Chuckle.Don't worry, you can repent in church tomorrow .
 
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farmer
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Climate Change & Extinction

November 8th, 2007, 4:16 pm

QuoteOriginally posted by: TraderJoeQuoteOriginally posted by: farmerI say flattening a whole city block in the West Village and building my own palace with gardens could get a lot of girls to drop their pants for me.That maybe your dream. My dream is to end world suffering .When my offspring inherit the Earth and 1133 other planets, I promise you the total percentage of whiners will have dropped significantly.
 
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November 11th, 2007, 10:20 am

"Compatibility means deliberately repeating other people's mistakes."
David Wheeler

http://www.datasimfinancial.com
http://www.datasim.nl
 
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Goodfella
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Climate Change & Extinction

November 11th, 2007, 2:09 pm

For some reason this thread makes me really hungry for cheese puffs.
 
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TraderJoe
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November 11th, 2007, 6:33 pm

QuoteOriginally posted by: GoodfellaFor some reason this thread makes me really hungry for cheese puffs.Was this the first thought that came into your brain? (Ahh, scary is the undisciplined mind). Now, try the second thing. Go with it. Go with it. See! Rational thought and crtical reasoning beat cheese puffs any day. Unless of course, you did the R&D. Sigh.
 
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March 13th, 2008, 8:11 pm

Ecosystem stress and global warming Stress on ecosystems exceeding adaptation, and including risk of extinction for many species, is a serious probable impact of global warming. Here is what the experts say (ref): During the course of this century the resilience of many ecosystems (their ability to adapt naturally) is likely to be exceeded by an unprecedented combination of change in climate, associated disturbances (e.g., flooding, drought, wildfire, insects, ocean acidification) and in other global change drivers (especially land-use change, pollution and over-exploitation of resources), if greenhouse gas emissions and other changes continue at or above current rates (high confidence). By 2100, ecosystems will be exposed to atmospheric CO2 levels substantially higher than in the past 650,000 years, and global temperatures at least among the highest of those experienced in the past 740,000 years (very high confidence) [4.2, 4.4.10, 4.4.11; Jansen et al., 2007]. This will alter the structure, reduce biodiversity and perturb functioning of most ecosystems, and compromise the services they currently provide (high confidence) [4.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.2-4.4.9, 4.4.10, 4.4.11, Figure 4.4, Table 4.1]. Present and future land-use change and associated landscape fragmentation are very likely to impede species’ migration and thus impair natural adaptation via geographical range shifts (very high confidence) [4.1.2, 4.2.2, 4.4.5, 4.4.10].Ref:2007 IPCC Report II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Executive summary, pp. 213-214, Ch. 4: Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services. Notation [4.2] means Ch 4 Section 2, etc. Other excerpts will follow. ----------
Jan Dash, PhD

Editor, World Scientific Encyclopedia of Climate Change:
https://www.worldscientific.com/page/en ... ate-change

Book:
http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/ ... 71241_0053
 
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March 18th, 2008, 2:20 pm

Ecosystem stress and global warming (II) Stress on ecosystems exceeding adaptation, and including risk of extinction for many species, is a serious probable impact of global warming. Here, continued, is what the experts say, direct from the 2007 IPCC full Impacts report (ref): Several major carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are vulnerable to current climate change and/or land-use impacts and are at a high degree of risk from projected unmitigated climate and land-use changes (high confidence). Several terrestrial ecosystems individually sequester as much carbon as is currently in the atmosphere (very high confidence) [4.4.1, 4.4.6, 4.4.8, 4.4.10, 4.4.11]. The terrestrial biosphere is likely to become a net source of carbon during the course of this century (medium confidence), possibly earlier than projected by the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) (low confidence) [4.1, Figure 4.2]. Methane emissions from tundra frozen loess (‘yedoma’, comprising about 500 Pg C) and permafrost (comprising about 400 Pg C) have accelerated in the past two decades, and are likely to accelerate further (high confidence) [4.4.6]. At current anthropogenic emission rates, the ongoing positive trends in the terrestrial carbon sink will peak before mid-century, then begin diminishing, even without accounting for tropical deforestation trends and biosphere feedback, tending strongly towards a net carbon source before 2100, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change trends at or above current rates (high confidence) [Figure 4.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.10, Figure 4.3, 4.4.11], while the buffering capacity of the oceans will begin to saturate [Denman et al., 2007, e.g., Section 7.3.5.4]. While some impacts may include primary productivity gains with low levels of climate change (less than around 2°C mean global change above pre-industrial levels), synergistic interactions are likely to be detrimental, e.g., increased risk of irreversible extinctions (very high confidence) [4.4.1, Figure 4.2, 4.4.10, Figure 4.3, 4.4.11].Ref:2007 IPCC Report II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Executive summary, pp. 213-214, Ch. 4: Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services. Notation [4.2] means Ch 4 Section 2, etc. Other excerpts will follow. -----------
Jan Dash, PhD

Editor, World Scientific Encyclopedia of Climate Change:
https://www.worldscientific.com/page/en ... ate-change

Book:
http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/ ... 71241_0053
 
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March 25th, 2008, 10:58 pm

Ecosystem stress and global warming (III) Stress on ecosystems exceeding adaptation, and including risk of extinction for many species, is a serious probable impact of global warming. Here, continued, is what the experts say (ref): Approximately 20 to 30% of plant and animal species assessed so far (in an unbiased sample) are likely to be at increasingly high risk of extinction as global mean temperatures exceed a warming of 2 to 3°C above preindustrial levels (medium confidence) [4.4.10, 4.4.11, Figure 4.4, Table 4.1]. Projected impacts on biodiversity are significant and of key relevance, since global losses in biodiversity are irreversible (very high confidence) [4.4.10, 4.4.11, Figure 4.4, Table 4.1]. Endemic species richness is highest where regional palaeoclimatic changes have been muted, providing circumstantial evidence of their vulnerability to projected climate change (medium confidence) [4.2.1]. With global average temperature changes of 2°C above pre-industrial levels, many terrestrial, freshwater and marine species (particularly endemics across the globe) are at a far greater risk of extinction than in the recent geological past (medium confidence) [4.4.5, 4.4.11, Figure 4.4, Table 4.1]. Globally about 20% to 30% of species (global uncertainty range from 10% to 40%, but varying among regional biota from as low as 1% to as high as 80%) will be at increasingly high risk of extinction, possibly by 2100, as global mean temperatures exceed 2 to 3°C above pre-industrial levels [4.2, 4.4.10, 4.4.11, Figure 4.4, Table 4.1]. Current conservation practices are generally poorly prepared to adapt to this level of change, and effective adaptation responses are likely to be costly to implement (high confidence) [4.4.11, Table 4.1, 4.6.1].Ref:2007 IPCC Report II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Executive summary, pp. 213-214, Ch. 4: Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services. Notation [4.2] means Ch 4 Section 2, etc. Other excerpts will follow. -----------
Jan Dash, PhD

Editor, World Scientific Encyclopedia of Climate Change:
https://www.worldscientific.com/page/en ... ate-change

Book:
http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/ ... 71241_0053
 
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Collector
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March 26th, 2008, 12:38 am

I just bought some solar panels, not to stop global cooling, but to have my own power at a extreme remote location. These solar panels where much more expensive in a country that scream high about clean energy and that one should switch to alternative energy like solar panels, cheapest place I found was US, the low dollar is good.
Last edited by Collector on March 25th, 2008, 11:00 pm, edited 1 time in total.