I just added more categories to those in the link you shared. Goedel starved himself to death because of his ideas. Nash also did a lot of crazy work, but I suspect that he wouldn't be that celebrated if he was of a sound mind.
Mathematics is too abstract to find juicy examples. Natural science is the queen: Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe for octopodes being aliens from the outer space and James Lovelock's Gaia theory loved by many pseudoscientists (those who want to do science, but don't know its rules).
BTW, isn't science often about crossing the borders of sanity? Sometimes in abstract directions. Since the brain has the power to "materialise" what we think, it's easy to lose grip on reality. You can go crazy from too much science or find solace in playing with pebbles and shells on the beach, with the vast Ocean of Truth murmuring in front of you
@"were very famous during their lifetime and are completely forgotten nowadays."
- old probability theories (sadly replaced with Kolmogorov's mess)